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L’important, c’est de participer ? partie 1

La participation atteint en moyenne 5% de la population totale. A Paris ou dans le Gers, elle est bien supérieure. Le point sur les chiffres.

Au cours des Rencontres nationales des Budgets participatifs, à Montreuil, j’ai présenté des résultats exclusifs de l’Enquête nationale lesbudgetsparticipatifs.fr, réalisée en partenariat avec la Fondation Jean-Jaurès. Exclusifs car jusque-là, ceux-là n’avaient pas été communiqués.

Sur 80 communes identifiées en 2018, 41 ont répondu par la voie des responsables de leur budget participatif. Ces agents, que je remercie encore pour leur collaboration, devaient noter leurs priorités de 1 à 5 pour le programme. De tous les items proposés, le seul à se détacher vraiment était l’augmentation de la participation qui obtenait une note de 4/5.

Une participation de 5%


D’après les résultats de l’Enquête nationale 2018, la médiane de participation atteint 4% en 2018. Ce chiffre peut paraître faible. C’est pourquoi il convient de l’expliquer. D’abord, il ne doit, en aucun cas, être comparé avec la participation électorale, puisqu’il s’appuie sur la population globale des communes engagées et non les listes électorales.

Il faut laisser au budget participatif le temps. Le temps de s’installer dans le paysage démocratique local d’une part, le temps de faire ses preuves et s’installer dans le paysage tout court. Et, hormis le Département du Gers et sa participation-record, il est rare que la première édition conduise à une participation d’ampleur.

Il faut enfin bien comprendre que, cette année, près d’une commune observée sur deux n’avait pas de budget participatif en 2017. D’autre part,  au moment de la publication de la note, rare était celle qui avait déjà procédé au scrutin. Dès lors, ce chiffre de 4% n’est pas un mauvais résultat.

La participation progresse partout


La participation progresse. Je ne reviendrai pas longuement ici sur le cas de Paris, cependant entre 2014 et 2018, la participation est passée de 2% en 2014, à 7% en 2017 et 10% en 2018. Dans les métropoles, ce mouvement est général. A Rennes, la participation a dépassé 7% lors de la troisième édition du programme. A Grenoble, après un trou d’air l’an passé du à la relative complexité du vote, celle-ci est repartie à la hausse en 2018.

Dans les très généreuses communes de Jarny (29,90€/hab.) ou Grande-Synthe (21,15€/hab.) où la participation est modeste, elle progresse. Entre 2017 et 2018, elle a doublé à Jarny à 4,75 % et progressé de presque 75 % à Grande-Synthe, à 2,79%.

Dans les petites communes, à l’image de Rocheservière (Vendée) ou Guichen Pont-Réan (Ille-et-Vilaine) avec une participation de 10,9 % en 2017 et 11,9 % cette année, il n’est pas rare d’assister à de forts taux de participation. Pour peu qu’il soit connu et compris, le budget participatif est un peu « l’événement de l’année » et suscite une forte adhésion.


Photo prise lors du Forum des idées à Grenoble qui a accueilli plus de 1500 votants pour la pré-sélection des projets. Chacun devait, à partir de crtières, définir les projets qui correspondaient le mieux à l’intérêt des citoyens.


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